Massie R. Se preconizeaza ca temperaturile anormal de ridicate vor imbunatati topirea ghetii Groenlandei, care a cunoscut deja un episod de topire extins intre 11 si 20 iunie. En effet, l histoire nous enseigne que les africains étaient de grands commerçants. Comunicarea nonverbală este asociată de regulă comunicării orale şi este reprezentată prin ansamblul: tonalitatea vocii, înălţimea vocii, tăcerea, pauzele, expresia corporală ş. The prisoners in space exiled to the smaller artificial satellite need to resort to desperate survival techniques: for each incoming cell mate, another is bound to be put to death. Informaţiile pot fi înscrise manual în tabele, registre, matrici, grafice, sau pot fi înregistrate automat prin echipamentele periferice electronice menţionate.
Orice reproducere integrală sau parţială, prin orice procedeu, a unor pagini din această lucrare, efectuate fără autorizaţia editorului este ilicită şi constituie o contrafacere. Sunt acceptate reproduceri strict rezervate utilizării sau citării justificate de interes ştiinţific, cu specificarea respectivei jean noel speed dating Editura Sitech Craiova All rights reserved.
This book is protected by copyright. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any means, including photocopying or utilised any information storage and retrieval system without written permision from the copyright owner. We start from the premise that the urban space is related to the architecture of postmodern dwelling places in the city and space and that space is produced, constructed through and embedded in peculiar spatial and walking practices which the postmodern writer works with and incorporates in his work so as to render one of the essential features of the postmodern world he lives in.
Our main objective is to understand how the city is conceptualized as future science-fictional space or as space of uncertainty in Postmodern English-American and French literary communication.
In this paper, we aim to explore how urban space can be related to subjective and implicit engagements and perceptions by the postmodern mind and body, through its sensations and perceptions, starting from a corpus of English-American and French novels by: Ray Bradbury, Curt Siodmak, Alison Lurie, Julien Gracq and Jacques Réda.
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We assert that urban space relies on conceptual metaphors related to peculiar spatial representations in order to describe what is conceived and perceived by the postmodern writers and characters from our corpus of novels. Our objective is to organize conceptualizations of urban space into several categories of cognitive metaphors related to the urban space, using a model inspired by the research of Lakoff and Johnson Keywords: city of the imagination, cognitive metaphors, images, perception, postmodern literary communication, representation, spaces of uncertainty 1.
Introduction Paths, alleys, towns and cities are referred to as places or spaces or bringing about peculiar landscapes; consequently, their meanings are hard to assimilate. But jean noel speed dating and spaces are ways of seeing, understating, knowing, grasping, 9 11 seizing the world around us.
We guess the existence of worlds of meaning and spatial experience, we understand that there are attachments, connections and interrelations between places, spaces and people. To think of urban space or of a portion of space as an intricate and complicated interaction between individuals and their environment equates with grasping this area of the world as place which is not thought of in terms of mere facts, numbers and figures anymore, but as a web of meanings and as a way of gaining knowledge of the world.
Our experience of any urban space and place through the five senses cannot be separated from the social, cultural and psychological environment in which the individuals live. If to understand any place and place within the urban realm equates with feeling or experiencing space and place, we must be aware of the fact that each individual, each city inhabitant might experience the sensations in a different manner, and remember, conceive and perceive space and place differently.
Consequently, places and spaces within the urban landscape are most of the time linked to peculiar perceptions, to subjective attitudes of appropriating space and place and to the relationship that inhabitants of passengers maintain with the particular spaces of living.
CREATIVITY, IMAGINARY, LANGUAGE
Starting from a comparative approach to space in Postmodern English- American and French literature, we contend that we can easily acknowledge urban space as a product of intersections and interrelations. Consequently, we assert that the urban space that emerges in postmodern fiction is also conceived through all kinds of interactions, starting from the immensity of the global to the most intimately flyspeck dwelling place.
Under the influence of globalization, the urban space is perceived, conceived and thought of in three chief traits: 1 space is produced and constructed through interrelations; 2 the postmodern urban space opens the possibility of the existence of multiplicity in the sense of contemporaneous plurality Massey; 3 the urban space is continuously being constructed and reconstructed by postmodern writers, citizens, inhabitants, passengers and by their experience of specific places.
For us readers to better understand the way images of the city are created and how the construction of urban space is conveyed through visual representations, a useful starting point is to see that the city is defined through a rich urban imagery and a wide range of conceptual metaphors in postmodern English-American and French literature.
Starting from an anthropologic-cognitive approach, using Lakoff and Johnson s model and the comparatist method, we assert that, within our corpus of study, the most recurrent urban space metaphors are those of the urban space as multisensory human being, as satellite, as setting and as space of uncertainty. Imagining the city and representing the city. Spatial identity landmarks and visual representations of city space Becoming familiar with the urban landscapes of postmodern writers is synonym for the reader to find and discover himself within a yielding space, endowed with indefinite outlines where the uncertain and the improbable become possible.
It is a space whose identity is defined by boundaries which are transgressed and by differences which are blurred or lack consistency. Displacement and the lack of stable landmarks are generated by the omnipresence of intruder agents which eventually lead to the dismantling of common behaviours or routines of both passengers and inhabitants of dwelling places.
These intruders might as well be represented by human noises and by stains, odours of fire, meteorite or metal. As common metaphor of urban imaginary, the intruder does not only symbolize the propensity to the nonobservance of established order, but it could also symbolize the desire to change one s own way of judging space, the relations between individuals inside jean noel speed dating as well as the structure and reaction of the human body in space and the perception of space projected from the body and bodily experience.
The writers and the characters representation of the jean noel speed dating space as well as the readers perception are rendered unconventional and consequently, they trespass common, current and traditional geographical and spatial categories, so that they bring about a series of metamorphoses that occur as though they jean noel speed dating shaped by unusual spatial landmarks.
This new perspective on the urban landscape in postmodern English-American and French fiction is reflected by a wide array of metaphors in relationship to the urban space. One of the recurrent metaphors found in our corpus of study is that of the urban space as multi-sensory human being instantly detecting these intruders or as body organ nose Cities of the imagination.
The urban space as multi-sensory human being One of the recurrent metaphors found in our corpus of study is that of the city as human being endowed with a multi-sensory body.
The organicistanimist metaphor compares the city to a live organism with its own organs such as ears and nostrils. The imaginary city in Ray Bradbury s science-fiction is not only compared to a multi-sensory human being, waiting for the planet to follow its race within space, but it also gradually identifies with an organ whose tissues are woven in the heart of its shaped network of avenues and dwelling places, while the black-walled buildings of the waiting city are perceived as olfactory membranes where the sense of smell is mediated by specialized sensory cells of a nasal cavity whose layers lie deep within the pores of grim concrete walls: La ville dégagea des narines secrètes dans ses murs noirs et l air régulièrement aspiré souffla en trombe dans les profondeurs des conduits, à travers des filtres et des dépoussiéreurs, jusqu à une série de membranes et de toiles délicates et argentées.
L jean noel speed dating continue apporta les odeurs du pré. BradburyThe secret nostrils of the city are hidden inside the black walls and the air regularly inhaled by the urban body is afterwards breathed out within the depths of pipes, through filters and dust arrestors, till it reaches a series of membranes and delicate silver web threads. The suction is capable of bringing together a bouquet of wild meadow odours.
Strangely though it might seem, this odour mixture does not smell anymore of wild herbs and flowers, of hay and countryside dust, but of gas, sulphur, copper, fire, meteorite and hot metal.
Odeur de feu, de météore, de métal chaud. Une fusée est arrivée d un autre monde. Odeur de cuivre, odeur poussiéreuse de la poudre brûlée, jean noel speed dating soufre, des gaz d échappement. The large urban nostrils are hence dilating again so as to seize and identify the odour of the Others. Hundreds or thousands of urban olfactory receptors bind to a specific molecular feature and odour molecules are endowed with a variety of features that excite particular receptors and disseminate the specific odour of the Other which is strangely the odour of butter.
Orice reproducere integrală sau parţială, prin orice procedeu, a unor pagini din această lucrare, efectuate fără autorizaţia editorului este ilicită şi constituie o contrafacere. Sunt acceptate reproduceri strict rezervate utilizării sau citării justificate de interes ştiinţific, cu specificarea respectivei citări Editura Sitech Craiova All rights reserved. This book is protected by copyright. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any means, including photocopying or utilised any information storage and retrieval system without written permision from the copyright owner. We start from the premise that the urban space is related to the architecture of postmodern dwelling places in the city and space and that space is produced, constructed through and embedded in peculiar spatial and walking practices which the postmodern writer works with and incorporates in his work so as to render one of the essential features of the postmodern world he lives in.
L odeur du beurre. Venant des hommes qui s avançaient jean noel speed dating précaution, les effluves se décomposèrent à l intérieur du Nez en souvenirs de matières grasses, de fromage, de crème glacée, senteurs d une économie laitière. In the urban brain, olfaction is primed, processed and treated by the olfactory system; once the olfactory receptor neurons in the nose of the living city have disseminated the fragrances of a dairy economy, the odours of the Other coming from another planet are decomposed inside the urban Nose into a recollection of terrestrial odour memory, into souvenirs of fat vegetable matter, of butter, cheese, ice cream.
Dating în recuperare olfactory receptor neurons differ from the other urban body neurons in jean noel speed dating once they have died, they cannot regenerate fast enough. Consequently, the urban organism blocks the functioning of the olfactory system which proves at this stage useless and activates another sense that is hearing.
The Ears of the city are awoken and they listen to the sound of the Others, to the bitter cries of celestial travelers that are cast out not only onto the city but also into the infinite space of silver stars and blackness: Au son de ces mots aboyés, les Oreilles s éveillèrent. Je ne sais pas pourquoi. Vous n avez jamais eu l impression d avoir déjà vu un endroit? Hé bien, cette ville paraît familière, trop, même. As ventilators are exhaling and retaining the air, the living city distinguishes the tobacco odour breathed out by the mouths of individuals, as well as it seizes the soapy scent of their hands and the peculiar odour of their eye globes.
After a last analysis carried out by the living urban organism, after having touched, felt, heard, smelt, seen and tasted the Other, the city must accomplish a daunting task. A trap is thus opened inside the alley and inside the stomach of the city where the captain of the racket from outer space disappears. The readers might ask themselves what is to happen with him. Before digesting him, the urban human being performs a sinister operation on his body: the captain is hung upside down, a razor cuts his throat, another razor cuts through his chest and stomach, his carcass is emptied of his guts and bowels, he lies on a table in a secret operating room underneath the 13 15 street.
Iulie s-a potrivit, si poate a rupt, recordul pentru cea mai tare luna de la inceperea analizei 15 Conform noilor date de la Organizatia Meteorologica Mondiala si Programul de Schimbare Climatica Copernicus, luna iulie s-a potrivit si poate s-a rupt, recordul pentru cea mai tare luna de la inceperea analizei. Cifrele arata ca iulie a fost la egalitate si, probabil, mai cald decat luna iulie cea mai calda anterioara, incare a fost si cea mai calduroasa luna. Cele mai recente cifre sunt deosebit de semnificative, deoarece iulie a fost in timpul uneia dintre cele mai puternice aparitii ale fenomenului El Nino, care contribuie la cresterea temperaturilor globale.
Giant crystal urban microscopes analyze his muscular fibers and mechanic hands resembling those of a quick-minded chess player on a chessboard examine his heart and his skin. While measurements are performed by the vengeful living city so as to take the celestial traveler s body temperature and cut his heart into several sections, as well as his liver and kidneys, his blood begins to flow over the vials and phials of the murderous urban entity which shakes it, centrifuges and displays it on strips and exposes it to further scrutiny under the sparkling glass of urban microscopes.
Une dernière analyse, et la ville, après avoir écouté observé, goûté, senti, pesé, doit accomplir une tâche ultime. Le capitaine disparut; les autres, qui jean noel speed dating, ne s en aperçurent pas.
Pendu par les pieds, un rasoir lui ouvrant la gorge, un autre la poitrine et l abdomen, sa carcasse instantanément vidée de ses entrailles, allongé sur une table dans une salle secrète sous la rue, le capitaine trépassa.
De grands microscopes à cristal scrutèrent les fibres musculaires; des doigts mécaniques sondèrent le cœur qui battait encore. Les lambeaux de sa peau furent épinglés à la table, tandis que des mains articulées disséquèrent les différentes parties du corps comme un joueur d échecs rapide et curieux qui déplace ses pions et ses pièces.
Au-dessus, les hommes couraient, après Smith, en criant. Smith criait aussi, et au-dessous d eux, dans cette étrange salle d opération, le sang s écoulait dans des ampoules, pour y être secoué, centrifugé, étalé sur des lamelles, exposé sous d autres microscopes; les numérations étaient effectuées, les températures mesurées, le cœur découpé en sections, le foie et les reins partagés avec art.
Iulie s-a potrivit, si poate a rupt, recordul pentru cea mai tare luna de la inceperea analizei
Le crâne fut trépané, l encéphale dégagé, les nerfs retirés, les muscles allongés à la limite élastique; tandis que dans la centrale souterraine de la ville, le Cerveau établit enfin le grand total et tout le mécanisme fit halte, monstrueusement.
In its turn, the jean noel speed dating city proves to be the realm of Vengeance, on the Planet of Darkness, at the foot of the Mount of Dead. Once it stops performing experiments on the Others, the living city might become a balance, an antenna, a jean noel speed dating meant to not only to analyze, but also to accommodate and accept the Others or the future voyagers from space.
Et le nom de cette ville était et il est encore Vengeance, sur la 14 16 planète des Ténèbres, au bord de la Mer des Siècles, au pied du Mont des Jean noel speed dating tout cela est très poétique. Cette ville jean noel speed dating destinée à être une balance, un creuset, une antenne, pour analyser tous les futurs voyageurs de l espace. Cities of the imagination. The city as satellite With science-fictional author Curt Siodmak, in the City in the Sky, we become familiar with the metaphor of the city as satellite.
The City in the Sky is conceived as a giant machine, as a satellite turning round the Earth every ninety-five minutes. It is the result of a project launched during a period of approach and reconciliation attempts between the major world powers. All the participating nations wish to contribute to the expensive project of the City in the Sky. The aerial urban space or the International Space City is designed as a neutral territory, as a symbol of unity amongst countries on the globe and as a propagator of peace.
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The City in the Sky is a satellite jean noel speed dating has been launched on the orbit for two years by an idealist Lee. This aerial urban project raises questions and tries to grasp issues of international political economics and geostrategy, as well as it attempts to raise awareness and solve issues linked to the overabundance of computer technology and explain the technological philosophy behind the social-cultural realm of the urban community encapsulated and suspended up in the air.
As far as resources are concerned, the satellite s most precious commodity is water; the air of the City in the Sky is constantly dehydrated and the liquid is distilled for recycling. Strange though it might seem, everything is recycled in this encapsulated community: liquid human excrement is re-used: it is ejected into space through small reactors that help to regulate the satellite s rotation movements; hence, the inhabitants joke by realizing the City in the Sky maintains its balance by micturating into the void.
La Ville Internationale de l Espace est un terrain neutre, symbole visible de l unité des pays sur le globe, propagatrice de paix. Lee a la sensation inquiète que tout le projet a trop bien marché, il ne voudrait pas que des difficultés à venir soient dissimulées sous l euphorie politique.
L air de la VDC est constamment déshydraté et le liquide distillé pour recyclage. Même l excrément liquide humain trouve un emploi: chauffé sous pression, il est éjecté dans l espace par de petits réacteurs qui règlent la rotation du satellite. C est une plaisanterie favorite parmi les passagers de dire que la Ville du Ciel se maintient en équilibre en pissant dans le vide.
Siodmak23 15 17 Even though the International Space City was meant as a propagator of peace, as a symbol of the unity amongst nations and as a symbol of highlyadvanced technology, Lee is soon witness to the deception of a dream which cannot become reality. Consequently, the City in the Sky proves to be the playing field of the world s richest individuals and the headquarters of influential multinational corporations; a bunch of highly influential individuals have a monopoly on taxes collected, or better said, extorted by the space city authority.
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Ideologies are strongly defined and spread throughout the encapsulated city while tensions amongst nations and races living together in the aerial megalopolis cannot be controlled and tempered. Yet, insurgence comes from the Prison Space, a former laboratory of the International Space City, conceived as a smaller satellite of the satellite in order to host revolutionaries like Pierre Bardou, intellectual outcasts and renegades menacing the social, cultural and political balance as well as the propagation of dominant ideologies and hierarchies of power.
The prisoners in space exiled to the smaller artificial satellite need to resort to desperate survival techniques: for each incoming cell mate, another is bound to be put to death. The prisoners are driven close to madness, while courage emerges alongside with Bardou s attempt to highjack a larger satellite, designed as a City in the Sky for the sole use of the rich.
Even though the International Space City represents the height of sophisticated technology and an investment of the world s community of superpowers created so as to show that the world s inhabitants do not need any boundaries in order to act and live together harmoniously ibidem,it jean noel speed dating as a project since the overuse of technology, mainly computer technology, is not capable of bringing peace to the world and all the more so as tensions and conflicts amongst nations increase, instead of being tempered.
La VDC peut-elle prouver que les habitants du monde n ont pas besoin de frontières pour agir et vivre ensemble en harmonie?
Que le nationalisme et le chauvinisme appartiennent à un passé barbare? Cette idée était autrefois derrière l obsession de Lee de créer la Ville du Ciel. Mais jusqu ici son idéalisme reste insatisfait.
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Maintenant que le satellite géant tourne autour de la Terre toutes les quatre-vingt-quinze minutes, Lee éprouve la déception d un rêve qui n est pas devenu réalité. Jean noel speed dating idéologies se sont âprement définies.